IoT technologies have come a long way in integrating multiple fields from other computing areas. So, there is a great requirement for integrating these technologies with IoT-enabled devices. These technologies are able to handle software, hardware as well as business intelligence prospects for multiple IoT devices. Some of the most viable technologies are discussed here, which help in enabling the IoT to work with assurance and the best quality:
1. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)
WSN or Wireless Sensor Network is a network of distributed sensors or even a collection of sensors that act as nodes to each another. WSN handles the organization and configuration of all the networks present for any device. The best part of using a WSN is that it has the capability of self-organizing the networks which reduces human effort. ZigBee protocol is a very popular WSN build to be used in the IoT industry, which is a part of the Xbee wireless module. WSNs are most popularly applied in applications like soil monitoring, building maintenance systems, surveillance systems, etc.
2. Big Data Analytics
Big data analytics is a highly used and tested method for the collection and analytics of big data i.e. extremely large volumes of data that can be used in computing specific trends, behaviors, and interactions for achieving specific results. Big Data Analytics comprises multiple steps for the best analysis of data. The 3 characteristics of Big Data include Volume, Velocity, and Variety, commonly referred to as the 3 V’s of Big Data. The widespread advancement in IoT has led to an increase in the volumes of data created by these IoT devices. So, this has resulted in an urgent need to manage and analyze the data that is only possible with the help of big data analytics tools.
3. Embedded Systems
From remote controls to our banks, embedded systems are used everywhere today. The official definition of an embedded system can be stated as an electronic device that is designed to perform some specific set of tasks in a particular environment. An embedded system must possess a microcontroller or a microprocessor. Embedded systems are able to perform only certain activities. It uses limited hardware and software aids as far as any embedded system’s design is concerned. Some characteristics of embedded systems include their ability to implement a small set of functionalities that are encapsulated by users, their ability to not be bulky or contain any extra external peripherals, and so on.
4. Cloud Computing
Cloud Computing is the field of computing in which activities like the delivery of applications and services take place over the internet.
It is being highly used in IoT for a couple of years now. In a cloud-based environment, the storage is particularly based on sharing basis which is commonly referred to as the multi-tenant aspect of the cloud. The multi-tenant aspect of cloud computing helps in the collaboration of multiple services over the internet. The services offered by cloud providers can be accessed over the internet by the use of web applications using PCs, apps, or laptops. Cloud computing also provides networking, storage, and computing resources as per the need of the user and the IoT developer.
5. Communication Protocol.
IOT-based applications require communication between the devices and the sensors. These communication protocols help in sending and receiving data onto and into the device. It is one of the primary needs of an IoT-enabled device to function properly. These protocols are used to specify the addressing formats for source and destination. Protocols are also used for implementing control flow mechanisms, routing mechanisms, sequence control mechanisms, etc. Protocols for all the networking layers which are used in IoT are tabulated below:
|1||Link Layer||802.3 (Ethernet), 802.16 (WiMax), 802.15.4 (LR-WPAN),802.11 (WiFi), 2G/3G/4G (Mobile Communication)|
|2||Network/Internet Layer||IPv4, IPv6, 6LoWPAN|
|3||Transport Layer||UDP, TCP|
|4||Application Layer||HTTP, CoAP, AMQP, WebSocket, XMPP, DSS|
In a crux, IoT is a vast field that is contrasted with multiple advanced technologies to make it work to the fullest. So, IoT is a combination of many different technologies which can be embedded in a module or even an IoT device. The future of IoT is based on the advancements in the enabling technologies for IoT as well as the customers’ desire to integrate these devices with as many devices of different domains as possible.